In this page we provide a brief historial note on the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) and on the events leading to the momentous occassion of the formation of Netaji's Provisional Government of Free India on 21 October, 1943 and its subsequent recognition by
Utterly convinced that passive protestations and civil disobedience to the English rulers of
Bose firmly believed that
Disappointed with Russian response to his proposal for help, Bose eventually leaned towards
His earlier stay in
[But] at the time the leading lights of German politics must have been so busy that they had no time to consider in deatil the case of a man, even of Bose's political status, who had appeared suddenly on the scene, with his uncommon demands.ibid p.29
He saw Mussolini. He frequented between the German foreign office and Japanese mission. He saw Hitler on 26th May 1942 to plead the urgency of his case. At the time Hitler was a little hesitant as his forces were advancing towards
The Japanese Government was a little unsure as to whether it was a good idea to bring Subhas Bose to the East in view of the impending perilous risks. Further, they already had another Bose (Rash Behari) who was already doing a commendable job of uniting the East Asian Indians against Briain. As to Rash Behari's request for speedy transfer of Subhas Chandra Bose to the East Lieutenant General Seizo Arisu of Japanese Ground Self Defence is quoted as saying:
All these arrangements were successfully carried out through joint efforts of Netaji and the Special India Division and thanks to the initiative of General Oshima, Ambassador of Japan in Berlin, his military attache Mr. Yamamoto and other members of the the Japanese Embassies in Berlin and Rome, as well as competent German military authorities. Werth op. cit. p. 38.
At dead of night on the 26th April, 1943 the two submarines could see each other at the pre-appointed location off Madagaskar coast. They did not make initial contact with each other until the following day. But as the weather was pretty rough it was decided to travel futher north-east in search of calmer sea. On 28th, despite inclement weather, Bose and Hassan were transferred from the German sub to the Japanese sub with the help of a rubber boat. On 6th May they landed at Saban, not
Hugh Toye wrote about Bose:
On 23rd October
Kohima fell to INA's Subhas Brigade on 8th April under the command of Col. Thakur Singh (2IC). Moirang fell to INA on 14th April, Col. S. Malik raised the Tri-color flag. The wonderful work done by Major Gen. Kiani's troops, and by Subhas Brigade under Shahnawaz Khan's command allowed INA to surround the British troops in Imphal for around three months.
The battle of Imphal turned out to be a protracted battle - for which INA's timing was too late in summer. Soon monsoon, not the British army, was to become their biggest advarsary.
'With continuous pounding of the only connecting link between the INA Headquarters and the Advance forces' by British B29 bombers and nothing to combat them with it was getting tougher by the day. Wrose still, INA did not have any aereal cover of their own - as most Japanese planes left the area to fight the Americans elsewhere. This inevitably meant that it was almost impossible to ensure continuity of supplies. Further, with the onset of monsoon, extensive rainfalls caused widespread flooding.
INA morale, however, was dampened neither by flood, nor for lack of supplies. They 'lived on grass and leaves for long', they could have gone on longer. Their leaders call was 'We must keep marching on.' Even the defection of Gandhi Brigade's Commandant B.J.S. Garewal and Major Prabhudayal to British army with maps and papers pinpointing exact locations of INA positions could not destroy the fighting spirit of the INA troops. Outbreak of malaria and descentry in the face of a total lack medical facilities and supplies dealt, however, a severe blow and took a heavy toll.
On Bose's instruction the troops eventually retreated. The extent of loss during retreat was significant.
Following the fall of Okinawa, despite
After a short break at the airport and following maintencne checkup of the aircraft and a light refreshment the plane took off from the runway. Mechanical troubles caused the aircraft, hardly elevated 300 ft, to collapse and it crashed down to the ground. Bose was badly injured and was taken to the
At least that was the official announcement.
A significant part of this article was based on excellent details available from Shailes De, Aami Subhas Bolchhi, vol.I,II,III, Eighth Edition, Visvabanee Prakashani,