Wednesday, February 20, 2013
USA National Archive -OSS - Declassified records of WWII - Chinese Troops, US War Command Office inside Indian Territory
Subject : Records of the
Commission, United Nations War United States
On October 7, 1942, the
United States and issued simultaneous
declarations Great Britain
that a United Nations War Crimes Commission would be established to affix responsibility
of individuals guilty of war crimes and to collect and evaluate all the available evidence pertaining thereto. It was also stated that upon capitulation the enemy would be required to surrender war criminals within its jurisdiction. The declarations pointed out that it was not the intention of the United Nations to resort to mass reprisals but to punish “ringleaders responsible for the organized murder of thousands of innocent persons and the commission of atrocities which have violated every tenet of the Christian faith.”
To help identify war criminals, coordinate the war crimes investigations, and determine if there was sufficient evidence available to bring individuals to trial for war crimes, 17 Allied nations by diplomatic protocol created the United Nations Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes (subsequently the United Nations War Crimes Commission, or UNWCC). It was officially established in
on October 20, 1943, with authorization to compile lists of war criminals and
to receive evidence against them submitted by representatives of the
participating countries. Member nations were to cooperate by reporting all
crimes committed against nationals of any of the United Nations, to decide what
war crimes should be brought before the commission, and to supply the
commission with the proof required for prosecution. If the commission found
that there was a prima facie case against any London
individual, it published his name in a list of alleged war criminals, thus preparing for his apprehension and prosecution by one of the National War Crimes Offices of the member states. The commission itself was not empowered to prefer charges.
The office of the United States Commissioner on the United Nations War Crimes Commission was held by Herbert C. Pell, Jr., October 1943 to May 1945; Col. Joseph V. Hodgeson, May 1945 to May 1946; and Col. Robert M. Springer, May 1946 to May 15, 1948 (when the Commission terminated). The commission had a Far Eastern Subcommission to investigate Japanese war crimes. The U.S. Representative on this body was George Atcheson, Jr. The main body was located in
London while the Far Eastern Subcommission
was located in Chungking and later in . Nanking,
Records relating to the International Military Tribunal for the Far
The origins of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) can be traced to the Cairo Declaration of December 1, 1943, in which the
United States, Great Britain, and China
announced that their principal war aim in the Far East was “to restrain and
punish the aggression of .”
The three allies amplified this statement in the Potsdam Declaration, July 26,
1945, which reads in part: “There must be eliminated for all time the authority
and influence of those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into
embarking on world conquest…” and that “stern justice shall be meted out to all
war criminals including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners.”
On September 2, 1945, the Japanese government agreed by the Instrument of
Surrender to carry out the provisions of the Japan
Potsdam Declaration in good faith.
The IMTFE was established by a Special Proclamation issued January 19, 1946, by Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP). As at
major offenders were to be prosecuted by an international agency before an
international court. In conjunction with the special proclamation, General
Headquarters (GHQ) SCAP issued General Order 1, which officially promulgated
the charter of the Tribunal. This charter, later amended and published in
General Order 10, GHQ, SCAP, April 25, 1946, outlined the Tribunal’s
constitution, jurisdiction, functions, and procedure. Additional records
relating to the IMTFE are among the records of the National Archives Collection
of World War II War Crimes Records (Record Group 238) and the records of GHQ
SCAP and its subdivision in the Records of Allied Operational and Occupation
Headquarters, World War II (Record Group 331). Nuremberg
The records of military commissions in the Far East are included in the case files described in Entry 143; some records were kept in
Japan, however, and were returned to Washington, D.C. when the
United States ended its
in 1952. These records include reviews of sentencing in war crimes trials heard
before 8th Army military commissions and transcripts and exhibits in the trials
of Hiroshi Tamura and Soemu Toyoda, both tried before military tribunals in Japan . Tokyo
Records of the Operations Division (OPD)
The War Plans Division (WPD), renamed the Operations Division (OPD) in March 1942, was responsible for preparing the Army’s strategical, logistical, and operational plans and for assisting the Chief of Staff in the coordination and direction of operations in the overseas departments, 1939-1942, and the theaters of operation, 1942-1945. The Operations Division coordinated, planned, and developed current and future operations in conjunction with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, on whose committees it was usually represented.
National Archives Collection of World War II War Crimes
Record Group 238
Records of the International Military Tribunal for the
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) was established by a special proclamation of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP), January 19, 1946. The IMTFE’s intent was to implement the Potsdam Declaration of China, the
States, and the (July 26, 1945, as
accepted by the Japanese signatories of the Instrument of Surrender, September
2, 1945), which states that war criminals would be brought to justice. It was
also established to act on the SCAP’s authority to issue all orders
implementing the Japanese surrender terms. Such authority was given to SCAP by
a declaration of the foreign ministers of the United Kingdom United
Kingdom, United States,
and Soviet Union, issued from ,
December 27, 1945. In accordance with the IMTFE charter, promulgated by General
Order 1, General Headquarters (GHQ) SCAP, January Moscow
19, 1946, and amended by General Order 20, GHQ SCAP, April 25, 1946, IMTFE consisted of 11 judges, appointed by SCAP, as the representative in nationality of the Allied signatories of the Instrument of Surrender, and of
India and the . IMTFE heard cases
against 28 defendants, April 29, 1946-January 12, 1948 and rendered judgments,
November 4- 12, 1948, against 25 defendants (2 having died during the trial and
1 having been deemed incompetent to stand trial), with 7 sentenced to death, 16
to life imprisonment, 1 to 20 years’ imprisonment, and 1 to 7 years’
Records of the Headquarters
Southeast Asia Command
Headquarters Southeast Asia Command (SEAC) was established by Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) directive, CCS 308/3, August 21, 1943, implementing decision reached at Quadrant Conference,
(August 14-24, 1943). SEAC became operational, November 16, 1943, with
headquarters in Canada New Delhi, India, and was responsible for planning and
executing operations against Japanese forces in the southeastern Asia area that
included Burma, Thailand, Malaya,
Ceylon ( Sri Lanka), and Sumatra.
SEAC moved to , April 15, 1944. Pursuant to
decisions made at Terminal Conference, Potsdam, Germany (July 16-26, 1945), and
conveyed in CCS directive to Supreme Commander Southeast Asia, CCS 892/2, July
20, 1945, as amended July 24, 1945, the area under SEAC expanded, effective
September 2, 1945 (date of the formal Japanese surrender), to include Borneo,
Java, Celebes, the western half of New Guinea, and that portion of Indo-China
lying south of the 16th Parallel. Kandy, Ceylon participation in SEAC
officially terminated November 1, 1945, leaving SEAC a wholly British command.
SEAC abolished December 1, 1946, with command functions divided among
commanders-in-chief of the three services, and a joint service headquarters
established under chairmanship of a civilian. U.S.
Historic Cryptographic Collection, Pre-World War I Through World War II 1891- 1981 (0457-A1-9032)
Cryptographic records (including raw intercepts [often untranslated]) of decrypted radio communications) inherited by the National Security Agency (NSA) from its predecessor agencies, as well as materials gathered by NSA. The types of records found within the collection include raw intercepts (often untranslated) of decrypted Axis radio communications, captured technical handbooks and manuals, historical summaries and studies of signal intelligence, and interrogations of prisoners of war. The records relate to such broad topics as codes and ciphers of Allied, Axis, and neutral countries; signal equipment; the breaking of codes by both Allied and Axis countries; captured documents; and military operations. Most of the documentation pertains to German and Japanese encryption measures and associated signal intelligence activities during World War II, but also included are code and cipher intelligence relating to such countries as Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chile, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Haiti, India, Italy, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. Arranged according to an agency-created alphanumeric
filing scheme. A document list is available. Since related records are scattered
throughout the collection, researchers should examine the entire finding aid to locate all available materials on a particular topic.
Records of the
China- Burma- India
Army Theater of Operations, U.S.
Under Maj. Gen. Joseph W. Stillwell as theater commander, the headquarters of the
U.S Army Forces, China-Burma-India, usually known as Headquarters USAF, CBI, was established at
in March 1942. Several command posts were located near the scene of combat
operations. From March to May 1942, during the first Burma
campaign, the forward command post was located at Maymyo, the rear echelon was
at Lashio, and headquarters detachments were at Kunming
In May 1942, when the American-Chinese forces were driven from Calcutta Burma to India,
the rear echelon was relocated at New Delhi in
order to direct United States
forces in India and to
operate supply lines in .
The forward echelon was set up at Chungking, to direct American military
operations in China .
Branch headquarters was located at China .
branch was disbanded on December 31, 1943. On April 1, 1944, during the
India-Burma campaign, the rear echelon at Kunming New Delhi
was made the main headquarters, and the forward echelon remained at Chungking. On October 24, 1944, after the
China-Burma-India Theater was
divided, the headquarters at
was redesignated as Headquarters
U.S. Army New Delhi
Forces, India-Burma Theater. The main headquarters at New Delhi included the Deputy Commander, the Chief of Staff, and the Deputy Chief of Staff; general-staff divisions G-2 to G-4; the usual special-staff sections; and boards and committees that supervised special activities.
Between March 1942 and October 1944, several major subordinate commands were set up under this headquarters. Headquarters provided some administrative and supply services to the Office of Strategic Services Detachments in the area; the India-China Division of the Air Transport Command; the Joint Intelligence Collecting Agency, CBI, which operated under the Joint Chiefs of Staff; and the XX Bomber Command, which was controlled by Headquarters Army Air Forces.
Records of the India-Burma Theater of Operations,
Army (IBT) U.S.
U.S. Forces, India-Burma Theater, also known as USF, IBT, was established on October 24, 1944, under Lt. Gen. Daniel I. Sultan. In June 1945 Maj. Gen. Raymond A. Wheeler became commanding general. The command comprised the U.S. Army air, ground, and service forces that operated in
Ceylon, Thailand, the Malay
States, and Sumatra.
It had tactical jurisdiction over most of the old China-Burma-India Theater
except China itself and over
the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and additional territory in . Its primary task was to
continue the support of the Allied Forces in Thailand . As the communications zone
for the China Theater, it provided security and maintenance for land lines to China China and supply services, material, and
equipment for Allied operations in southern and central . China combat and service troop units
of USF, IBT, also participated in and supported the operations of the Southeast
Asia Command. They were under the operational control U.S.
of that Command and under the administrative control of Headquarters USF, IBT. This headquarters was discontinued in 1946.
Headquarters of this command was located at
from October 1944 until after the
war. The organization of headquarters included the Deputy Theater Commander,
the Chief of Staff and the Deputy Chief of Staff; general-staff sections,
including Historical and Public relations Sections; and a varying number of
attached boards and commissions, such as the local Foreign Claims Commission
and the American Petroleum Committee. In May 1945 this headquarters took over
the functions and personnel of Headquarters Services of Supply, India-Burma
Theater. New Delhi
Records of the Chinese Army in
(CAI IV) India
After the collapse of Allied forces in
in mid-1942, two Chinese divisions, the new 22nd and the new 38th, withdrew to .
In October 1942 the Chinese Army in India (CAI), which was composed of all
Chinese ground troops in India, was put under the command of General Stillwell,
the Commanding General of U.S. Army Forces, CBI and the Chief of Generalissimo
Chiang Kai-Shek’s Joint Staff. During 1943 the New 30th Division was flown into
and joined in April 1944 by the 14th and 50th Divisions. After October 24,
1944, the Chinese Army in India
was transferred to General Sultan, commanding general of the U.S. Army Forces,
India-Burma Theater. In December 1944, the New
22nd Division and the 14th Division were flown back to India , where they became part of
the GHQ reserve. These divisions supported the Allied offensive in China Burma by attacking southward from Yunan, helping
to clear the Burma Road in January 1945.
Another unit organized in
was the Sino-American First Provisional Tank Group which supported India
American and Chinese operations in
General Headquarters CAI, a joint American-Chinese organization, was established at
organized in the Chinese Army staff pattern, with the American theater commander as the Commanding General, a Chinese general as the Vice Commander until January 1943, and an American general officer as Chief of Staff for the General Headquarters.
Records of the
China Army (CT) Theater of Operations, U.S.
U.S. Forces, China Theater, known as
organized on October 29, 1944, as one of the two successors of U.S. Army
Forces, China-Burma-India. Its commanding general, Maj. Gen. Albert C.
Wedemeyer, was also made Chief of Staff to Generalissimo Chiang Kai- Shek. It
comprised the U.S. Army forces on the mainland of USF, CT China
and the adjacent islands and in Indochina. It
continued the operations of its predecessor in that area, including the
air units for tactical, strategic, and ground support operations, the training
of Chinese troops, and the logistical support of Chinese air and ground
was located at Chungking. It continued in
the staff functions previous exercised by Headquarters U.S. Army Forces,
China-Burma-India, March 1942- October 1944. General Wedemeyer was responsible
to the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the control of all China U.S.
forces in .
As Chief of Staff to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek, he advised and assisted the
Generalissimo and the Chinese general staff with respect to the training of
Chinese troops and their employment against the Japanese forces in China .
Headquarters China USF, CT,
collaborated with the corresponding headquarters in the India-Burma Theater on
matters relating to supply, personnel replacements, and material in the China Theater
and on matters relating to the Chinese
Army in .
Headquarters at India Chungking included the Theater
Commander, the Chief of Staff,
generalstaff sections G-1 to G-5; and the usual special-staff sections. The
rear echelon of headquarters (also called the advance section) operated at from December 13, 1944
to July 1945; it too had general-staff and special-staff sections. The
liquidation of Kunming , was completed in 1946 by the Nanking
Headquarters Command. The Nanking Command was discontinued in October 1946, and
its remaining personnel were transferred USF, CT
to the Joint United States Military Advisory Group to the Republic of
Records of the Chinese Combat Command
The Chinese Training and Combat Command was activated in November 1944, shortly after the China-Burma-India Theater was divided. It concluded the work of the Y-Force and ZForce Operations Staffs, which had been responsible for providing American training and supply to Chinese divisions. The new command took over the training programs at the
and the Kweilin Training
Centers and continued to assist the
Chinese Expeditionary Force in its offensive in central and southern .
In January 1945 the Command was organized in two subordinate administrative
commands, the Chinese Training Command (Provisional) and the Chinese Combat
Command (Provisional). Under the Chinese Combat Command were six subordinate
commands for liaison with the Chinese Army Groups and a liaison team for each
Chinese Army or Division. These organizations exercised no tactical or
operational control over the Chinese commands China
Allied Translator and Interpreter Section (ATIS)
After the Allied Forces seized the offensive in the Southwest Pacific Area, the increasing number of prisoners and documents captured necessitated the consolidation and expansion of such Allied linguistic units as already existed. As a result, General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area, issued on September 19, 1942, a directive establishing the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section (ATIS) as a centralized intelligence organization composed primarily of language personnel and designed to systematize the exploitation of captured documents and the interrogation of prisoners of war. An original group of 25 officers and 10 enlisted men expanded steadily as more linguists became available from the language schools set up under army, navy, and air force control in the United States,
22, 1944, that Advanced Allied Translator and Interpreter Section (ADVATIS) be established in the immediate vicinity of General Headquarters at Hollandia. The unit was in effect a miniature ATIS, with various sections coordinating the production of translation and interrogation reports of immediate operation value and importance to units in the operational areas. In May 1945 ADVATIS followed the advance of General Headquarters into
. Base ATIS was
closed at Manila Brisbane on June 4, 1945, and
established several weeks later in .
With the surrender of the Japanese, the Advanced Party of ATIS arrived in Manila on October Tokyo
3, 1945. Base ATIS ceased operations in
in November 1945 and began operations